Appendix C, Mass MKULTRA – Part 2

Appendix C, Mass MKULTRA – Part 2

Note: This is about CIA’s TSS/Chemical Division

This is from the Schaffer Library of Drug Policy

-123-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

DRAFT
[deletion]

5 May 1955

A portion of the Research and Development Program of TSS/Chemical Division is devoted to the discovery of the following materials and methods:

1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.

2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.

3. Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.

4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.

5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.

6. Materials which will render the induction of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.

7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called “brain-washing”.

8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.

9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.

10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.


-124-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

-2-

11. Substances which will produce “pure” euphoria with no subsequent let-down.

12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.

13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.

14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.

15. Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.

16. A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.

17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a man to perform any physical activity whatsoever.

The development of materials of this type follows the standard practice of such ethical drug houses as [deletion] It is a relatively routine procedure to develop a drug to the point of human testing. Ordinarily, the drug houses depend upon the services of private physicians for the final clinical testing. The physicians are willing to assume the responsibility of such tests in order to advance the science of medicine. It is difficult and sometimes impossible for TSS/CD to offer such an inducement with respect to its products. In practice, it has been possible to use outside cleared contractors for the preliminary phases of this work. However, that part which involves human testing at effective dose levels presents security problems which cannot be handled by the ordinary contractor.


-125-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

-3-

The proposed facility [deletion] offers a unique opportunity for the secure handling of such clinical testing in addition to the many advantages outlined in the project proposal. The security problems mentioned above are eliminated by the fact that the responsibility for the testing will rest completely upon the physician and the hospital. [one line deleted] will allow TSS/CD personnel to supervise the work very closely to make sure that all tests are conducted according to the recognized practices and embody adequate safeguards.

[document ends]


-126-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

10 May 1955

SUBPROJECT 35 OF PROJECT MKULTRA

1. Subproject 35 as approved by the DCI on 15 January 1955 contemplated a financial contribution of $125,000 to the [deletion] to participate in the construction of a new research wing to cost $3,000,000 exclusive of furnishings and equipment. Agency funds will be transmitted through the [deletion] as cut-out which will result in one-sixth of the space in the new research wing being made available for Agency-sponsored research involving covert biological and chemical techniques of warfare.

2. At that time (15 January 1955) [deletion] with CIA encouragement indicated a willingness to contribute $500,000 to the construction fund. The building fund was to have been raised as follows:

$1,000,000 – Contributed by [deletion]
250,000 – Donation from [deletion] of which $125,000 to be supplied by CIA
1,250,000 – Matching funds under Public Law 221 equal to the amount of the two above contributions
500,000 – [deletion]
_________________
$3,000,000 – TOTAL

4. The Agency’s contribution would thus total $375,000. This investment, together with the equal sum resulting from matched funds, is fully justified in the opinion of TSS for reasons which will be explained by [deletion] Chief, TSS, and Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, Chief, TSS/Chemical Division. The scope of subproject 35 has not changed since the Director originally approved a request by TSS for permission to spend $125,000 of available

[handwritten note:]

Resume of project circulated to members of [illegible] at meeting on 11 May ’55


-127-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion] funds for this purpose through the controls and procedures established for MKULTRA. At the time subproject 35 was set up within the scope of the TSS R&D program, security considerations and cover arrangements were carefully reviewed, and the Office of General Counsel assisted in legal determinations. With the exception of funding arrangements, no changes to the program have since been made.

5. Funds to cover the previously approved sum of $125,000 are available within the TSS [deletion] budget for FY 55 and have been set aside. The TSS budget, however, lacks funds with which to cover the supplemental sum of $250,000, and it is requested that the TSS [deletion] budget be increased by this amount. Supplementary funds available for subproject 35 can definitely be obligated by the end of FY 55.

-2-

[document ends]


-128-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

AMENDMENT TO SUBPROJECT 35, PROJECT MKULTRA

For the Purpose of Establishing a Cover Organization for Highly Sensitive Projects in the Field of Biological, Chemical and Radiological Warfare

I. Background on Subproject 35.

In January 1955 approval was given by the DCI to Subproject 35 of Project MKULTRA. The documents which lead this approval (including comments of the OGC) are attached herewith as Tabs 2, A and 3.

Project MKULTRA is the framework of procedures and controls under which research projects in certain highly sensitive fields are carried out by TSS. A description of the background of Project MKULTRA may be found on page 1 of Tab A.

Subproject 35 establishes cover under which the Chemical Division of DD/P/TSS would conduct certain sensitive projects in the fields of biological and chemical warfare and consists of a proposed arrangement whereby the Agency covertly contributes funds to assist the [deletion] in the construction of a new research wing. Contribution of these funds is to be made through the [deletion] as cut-out so that the [deletion] would remain unwitting of Agency participation in the building program. Projects would later be carried out by the Chemical Division using the facilities of the new research wing, and Agency employees would be able to participate in the work without the University or the Hospital authorities being aware of Agency interest. Subproject 35 contemplated the contribution of Agency funds to assist in the construction of facilities. Future research work would be carried out through the [deletion] as cut-out and would be separately funded under existing procedures and controls.

[deletion] and the background of [deletion] are described on page 2 of Tab A. On the same page there will be found a further description of the [deletion]

II. Building Fund

The University will require $3,000,000 for the six-story addition to the hospital exclusive of the cost of land, heating and power supply which are being provided by the University. Under Public Law 221, Subappropriation


-129-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

663, dated 26 August 1954, funds are available to match funds raised for this purpose by the University.

When Subproject 35 was first prepared, it was hoped and expected that the funds required would be provided as follows: The University has allocated $1,000,000 to this project and will assume upkeep and staffing obligations. [deletion] agreed that if the Agency would provide [deletion] with a grant of $125,000, the Fund would match this amount and make a total donation of $250,000 to the University Building Fund. At that time, discussions with [one line deleted] indicated that [deletion] would contribute $500,000 to the building project on the basis that radiological research would be conducted in the new wing and that the construction of the new facilities was of interest to that Agency. In summary, the financial situation was to have been as follows:

$1,000,000 – [deletion]
250,000 – Donation from [deletion] (of which $125,000 was supplied by CIA)
1,250,000 – Matched Funds under Public Law 221
500,000 – [deletion]
_________________
$3,000,000 – TOTAL

It was recognized that the Federal contributions of $1,250,000 under Public Law 221 would be seemingly inflated by reason of the inclusion of the CIA contribution in that of [deletion] It was felt that the value to the Agency was such that this inflation of the Federal contribution was more than justified by the importance of the over-all project and that furthermore, the inclusion of the CIA contribution in that of [deletion] was the best means of maintaining security.

III. [deletion]

The original informal commitment on the part of [deletion] was first obtained through verbal discussions with [deletion] which were followed up by an exchange of correspondence between the DCI and [deletion] Unfortunately at that time [deletion] was fully occupied with the controversy concerning the [deletion] and continued contact with [deletion] subordinates resulted in a decision that [deletion] could not or would not contribute to the Building Fund, but would be willing to support an annual research program amounting to $50,000 to $75,000. It is not


-130-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

known whether this change in policy was suggested to [deletion] or whether it originated with him. Be that as it may, when the change in policy became apparent, it was evident that additional funds would be required to complete the hospital construction.

IV. Suggested Funding.

It is now suggested that the $3,000,000 required for the hospital wing be provided as follows:

$1,000,000 – [deletion]
500,000 – Donation from [deletion] (including $375,000 supplied by CIA)
1,500,000 – Matched Funds from Public Law 221
_________
$3,000,000 – TOTAL

The donation from [deletion] would thus consist of the original $125,000 to be supplied by CIA plus the sum of $125,000 to be provided by the Fund and a supplemental CIA contributions of $250,000. Originally Subproject 35 requested permission to make a contribution of $125,000 to the building fund and approval was given. This approval is enclosed herewith as Tab 2. The purpose of this amendment to Subproject 35 is to request permission to contribute an additional $250,000 to the building construction fund through [deletion] It should be noted that the total Government contribution to the hospital fund still remains unchanged at $1,875,000. The increase in the size of the contribution by the Fund is not out of keeping with other operations of [deletion] and will not arouse undue comment because of its magnitude. The originally approved contribution has not as yet been transmitted to [deletion] and neither the original contributions nor the supplement would be paid to [deletion] until funds adequate to complete the project are made available. This condition was specified by the DCI in approving the original contribution.

V. Source of CIA Funds.

Funds to cover the initially approved sum of $125,000 are available and have been segregated for this purpose within the TSS FY 1955 Budget for Research and Development. Insufficient funds remain in the TSS budget to cover the supplementary sum of $250,000, and it is therefore requested that the TSS budget be increased by this amount and that the increase be made available to Subproject 35 of Project MKULTRA.

-3-


-131-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

VI. Comments by the Office of General Counsel.

Tab 3 is a memorandum from the General Counsel to the DCI dated 21 December 1954, commenting on Subproject 35, and stating in part that there are no fundamental legal objections if the probable benefits are considered a fair return for this expenditure. The amendment to the Subproject contemplates only an increase in funds and in no way changes any other aspect of the project. The project has been referred back to the OGC even though no change in its structure is contemplated, and Tab 4 contains his comments.

VII. Justification.

The advantages and benefits accruing to the Agency outlined in Tab A are felt by TSS to provide adequate and complete justification for the expenditure of the additional sum herein requested which brings the total CIA contribution to $375,000. The most important of these advantages and benefits may be summarized as follows: (Fuller explanations may be found in Tab A).

a. One-sixth of the total space in the new hospital wing will be available to the Chemical Division of TSS, thereby providing laboratory and office space, technical assistants, equipment and experimental animals.

b. Agency sponsorship of sensitive research projects will be completely deniable.

c. Full professional cover will be provided for up to three biochemical employees of the Chemical Division.

d. Human patients and volunteers for experimental use will be available under controlled clinical conditions within the full supervision of [deletion]

Subproject 35 was originally conceived in October and November of 1954, and the ensuing six months have indicated that increasing emphasis and importance are being placed on the Chemical Division’s work in this field. The facilities of the hospital and the ability to conduct controlled experiments under safe clinical conditions using materials with which any Agency connection must be completely deniable will augment and complement other programs recently taken over by TSS, such as [deletion]

-4-


-132-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion]

It was originally thought that at least 18 months would elapse after the building funds had been raised before the facilities would be finished and could be occupied by TSS. This lengthy delay has now been overcome. When [one line deleted] has raised the $500,000 which his Fund will ostensibly contribute, he will then be allowed to use existing space in the present hospital in order that he may build up the organization which will later occupy the new wing. This means that TSS will be able to begin to take advantage of this cover situation within a matter of months instead of waiting for a year and a half.

VIII. Security.

Security matters and details are being co-ordinated with the TSS Liaison and Security Officer. Security of transmittal of the funds and cover arrangements are described in Tab A and remain unchanged.

IX. Agreement with [deletion]

The agreement with [deletion] is described in Tab A, and the extent of his co-operation and the control over his actions remains unchanged.

X. Resultant Financial Saving.

The total contribution of $375,000 by CIA will result in an additional $375,000 in matching funds provided under Public Law 221. It is felt that the expenditure of these total funds is justified by the importance of the programs which will be pursued at the new facility. Even though the CIA contribution is increased under this amended project, the total of Federal funds remains unchanged. The use of this facility will allow work to proceed under conditions of cover and security which would be impossible to obtain elsewhere without an expenditure of equivalent or greater funds. In addition, by funding individual projects for this facility through the [deletion] no charge will be incurred for overhead expense. If research projects [deletion] are openly sponsored by the U.S. Government, it is customary to pay an overhead rate equivalent to 80% of salaries. However, if a non-profit fund, such as [deletion] sponsors research, the funds granted for the work are customarily used only to pay for salaries, equipment and supplies, but not overhead. The Agency thus buys considerably more research through [deletion] than would be the case if no cut-out were used.

-5-

[document ends]


-133-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

MEMORANDUM FOR: [illegible]

Herewith the file on MKULTRA, Sub-project 35, with our comments on the legal aspects. While there is no legal control and there are certain incidental considerations, there is no fundamental legal objection if the probable benefits are considered a fair return for this expenditure.

[deletion]
General Counsel

22 December 1954
(DATE)

[document ends]


-134-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

[deletion]
Tab A

SUBPROJECT 35 – PROJECT MKULTRA

For the purpose of establishing a cover organization for highly sensitive projects in the field of covert Biological, Chemical and Radiological Warfare
____________________________________

I. Background of Project MKULTRA.

In 1953 the DCI approved Project MKULTRA which established procedures and controls under which research projects in certain highly sensitive fields could be carried out by TSS without the necessity of signing the usual contracts. The approved procedures apply [deletion] over-all Research and Development budget, and no additional funds are required. Controls established in the Project Review Committee approval of the Research and Development program (other than the signing of a contract) remain unchanged, and special provisions for audit are included. All files are retained by TSS.

These procedures and controls were approved since it is highly undesirable from a policy and security point of view that contracts be signed indicating Agency or Government interest in this field of endeavor. In a great many instances the work must be conducted by individuals who are not and should not be aware of Agency interest. In other cases the individuals involved are unwilling to have their names on a contract which remains out of their control in our files. Experience has shown that qualified, competent individuals in the field of physiological, psychiatric and other biological sciences are very reluctant to enter into signed agreements of any sort which would connect them with this activity since such connection might seriously jeopardize their professional reputations.

When Project MKULTRA was approved, it was not contemplated that it would be used for the establishment of cover. Over forty individual research and development projects have been established under this framework and have been carried out extremely successfully, both from technical and administrative points of view. The experience gained in handling these projects has emphasized that establishment of better cover both for the projects and for associated Agency scientists is of utmost importance. Subproject 35 would establish such cover.


-135-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

II. Background of the [deletion]

The [deletion] was incorporated in [deletion]. It has a Board of Directors of six members, one of whom is [deletion] who acts as Executive Director of the Fund. [deletion] it has solicited funds from various individuals to finance a program of basic research in the chemotherapy of cancer, asthma, hypertension, psychosomatic disorders and other chronic diseases. Since 1951 [deletion] has co-operated with the Chemical Division of TSS and acted smoothly and efficiently, both as a cut-out for dealing with contractors in the fields of covert chemical and biological warfare, and as a prime contractor for certain areas of biological research. Projects presently being handled for the Agency by the Fund are administered under the controls and procedures previously approved for MKULTRA.

III. Background of [deletion]

[deletion] is internationally known as a [deletion] in the field of [deletion] research and is [one line deleted] In the past he has been associated in a research capacity with both the [deletion] During the war [deletion] served as a [deletion] in the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery in the Navy. Since then he has maintained a consulting relationship to the Navy medical research program, [deletion] is TOP SECRET cleared and witting of Agency sponsorship of the programs carried out by the Fund as are two other members of the Fund’s Board of Directors.

IV. [deletion] Fund.

[one line deleted] has been actively engaged in a campaign to raise funds for the purpose of erecting a new clinical research wing on the existing [deletion] The research wing will consist of a building six stories high, 320 feet long and 50 feet wide. Two-thirds of the space will be research laboratories and offices while 100 research beds will occupy the remainder. [deletion] participation in the fund-raising campaign outlined below will result in his having control of one-sixth of the total space in addition to the base-

-2-


-136-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion]

ment and general out-patient facilities. In this effort, [deletion] has secured the enthusiastic support of the medical faculty and the officers of the University who have carried the preliminary arrangements forward to the maximum extent of their resources.

V. Financial Situation.

The University will require about $3,000,000 for the [deletion] story addition. This sum is exclusive of the cost of land and the heating and power supply, which are already available at the site. At the present time under Public Law 221, funds are available to match funds raised by the University. The University has allocated $1,000,000 to this project and will assume upkeep and staffing obligations. [deletion] has agreed that if CIA will provide [deletion] a grant of $125,000, [deletion] will match this amount and make a total donation of $250,000 to the University Building Fund. This Agency’s contribution will be made under the condition that it will be refunded if construction does not take place.

TSS has discussed this situation with [one line deleted] and has encouraged [deletion] to donate $500,000 to the building project on the basis that [deletion] will be conducted in the new wing. [deletion] though aware of our interest in the building, is unwitting of our specific fields of research and individual projects. In summary, the financial situation would be as follows:

$1,000,000 – [deletion]
250,000 – Donation from [deletion] ($125,000 supplied by CIA)
1,250,000 – Matched funds from Public Law 221
500,000 – [deletion]
__________
$3,000,000 – TOTAL

Although it is recognized that the Federal contribution of $1,250,000 under P. L. 221 is seemingly inflated by reason of the inclusion of the CIA contribution in that of [deletion] actually the value to the CIA is $250,000 and not just $125,000, the amount of CIA’s contribution; furthermore the inclusion of the CIA contribution in that of [deletion] is the best method of maintaining security.

-3-



-137-
    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion]

VI. Difficulties Faced by TSS.

It has been generally recognized for some time that the external research activities of the Chemical Division of TSS in the field of covert biological, chemical and radiological warfare are sorely in need of proper cover. Although Project MKULTRA provides excellent administrative and financial cover for projects, it does not afford cover for scientific or technical personnel. MKULTRA has been used for dealing through [deletion] as a cut-out and for working directly with individuals or private companies. The use of [deletion] in the future will be increasingly limited due to

(a) The increasing number of people who, albeit properly cleared, are aware of the Agency connection with [deletion]

(b) The feeling by [deletion] that the Agency employees contacting him (Drs. Gottlieb, [deletion], etc.) have no cover of any sort and consequently expose him to unnecessary and highly undesirable personal risk; and

(c) The widespread intra-Agency awareness of the nature of the relationship between the Fund and the Agency.

Another serious problem faced by TSS/CD as a result of lack of suitable cover is the difficulty in planning careers for technical and scientific personnel in the biological field. A long-range career concept of activities in this field inevitably includes proper cover for the individual concerned. The availability of research facilities at [deletion] will offer an excellent opportunity to solve many of the above problems, and [deletion] is willing and able to make any reasonable arrangements to suit our needs. Up to three Chemical Division employees can be integrated into [deletion] program for work in the new hospital wing on the Agency’s research projects. Although career planning was not a consideration when planning the procedures and controls established by Project MKULTRA, nevertheless this particular subproject, in addition to its primary objective, will be of very great secondary help

-4-


-138-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion]

in simplifying and eliminating many of the very awkward and dangerous conditions facing certain Chemical Division employees.

VII. Advantages and Benefits Accruing to TSS.

The contemplated arrangements will result in many advantages and benefits, including the following:

(a) One-sixth of the total space in the new research wing is to be available to [deletion] and in turn, will be available to the Chemical Division of TSS. This will provide laboratory and office space, technical assistants, equipment and experimental animals for use of Chemical Division personnel in connection with specific future projects.

(b) The cost of Chemical Division projects which are to be carried out under this cover will be covered by funds made available through Project MKULTRA, and projects will be subject to the procedures and controls established for MKULTRA. The funds will be passed through [deletion] as has been done in the past. [deletion] in turn will either pay expenses directly or transfer the money to the University for this purpose. Each project will be individually funded based on its particular budget, and there will be no other continuing or recurring charges for items such as space, facilities, etc.

(c) The Agency’s sponsorship of sensitive research projects would be completely deniable since no connections would exist between the University and the Agency.

(d) Excellent professional cover would be provided for up to three bio-chemical employees of the Chemical Division of TSS. This would allow open attendance of scientific meetings, the advancement of personal standing in the scientific world. and as such, would constitute a major efficiency and

-5-


-139-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

morale booster.

(e) Human patients and volunteers for experiment use will be available under excellent clinical conditions with the full supervision of [one line deleted]

(f) There would be available the equivalent of a hospital safehouse.

(g) It is expected that the output of useful results of the Chemical Division in the bio-chemical field will be greatly improved through the more efficient use of technical personnel who would be able to spend more of their time on actual laboratory work.

(h) [one and a half lines deleted]

(i) Excellent facilities would be provided for recruiting new scientific personnel since members of the Chemical Division working under this cover will be in daily contact with members of the Graduate School of the University.

(j) The regular University library and reprint service will be available as a source of technical information.

VIII. Funding.

It is proposed that $125,000 be granted to [deletion]. If approval is granted, TSS will arrange for payment to be made under the procedures and controls of MKULTRA. These funds would come out of the presently approved TSS Research and Development budget for FY 1955 and no new funds are involved. The funds would be transferred as a grant to [deletion] In turn [deletion] will match these funds with an equal amount and donate a total of $250,000 to the University as outlined in paragraph V. The sum of $125,000 would be entirely in the nature of a grant and would in due

-6-


-140-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

course be merged with the entire $3,000,000 raised for the construction of the wing. The Agency would retain no residual interest in the building or title to any equipment or facilities purchased with this money.

This single grant will constitute the Agency’s entire participation in the new hospital wing, and there will be no recurring obligations in the form of annual support of the hospital or additional grants. Transmission of Agency funds to [deletion] will be made through previously established cover channels set up by the [deletion] for similar transmittals in the past. The donation on [deletion]s books will be shown as having been received from [deletion].

In the future when TSS sponsors sensitive research projects which are to be carried out in [deletion] each project will be individually financed through [deletion] as it has been in the past in accordance with previously established procedures and controls using allotted portions of the annual Research and Development budget. The University will be totally unwitting of Agency sponsorship, and the projects to every outward appearance will be sponsored by [deletion].

In the event of [deletion] death, [deletion] will continue in being and any activities under this project will be continued through [deletion] and will be unaffected by his death.

IX. Memorandum of Agreement.

A memorandum of agreement will be signed with [deletion] outlining to the greater extent possible the arrangements under which the hospital space under his control will be made available to Chemical Division personnel and the manner in which cover will be provided and other benefits obtained. No contract will be signed since [deletion] would be unable to reflect any of the Agency’s contractual terms in his arrangements with the University when [deletion] makes the donation in question. The memorandum of agreement will be retained in TSS.

X. Security.

All security matters and details are being co-ordinated with the TSS/Liaison and Security Office.

-7-


-141-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion]

XI. Resultant Financial Saving.

The $125,000 to be contributed by CIA plus the $125,000 in matching funds provided under P. L. 221 to the Building Fund will be more than offset in a few years by the savings which will result from use of this non-profit fund. If a research project at [deletion] or other educational non-profit institution is sponsored by the U.S. Government, it is customary for the Government to pay for salaries, equipment, supplies, etc. and for overhead as well. In the case of [deletion] the overhead amounts to 80% of salaries. However, if a non-profit foundation such as [deletion] sponsors research at a non-profit institution, the funds granted for the work are customarily used to pay for salaries, equipment and supplies but not for overhead. The Government dollar thus buys considerably more research through [deletion] than would be the case if no cut-out were used.

XII. Legal Matters.

This matter has been discussed with [deletion] of the Office of General Counsel, and he is fully aware of all details surrounding this grant.

-8-

[document ends]


-142-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

9 April 1958

MEMORANDUM FOR: THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Trip Report, Visit to [deletion]
7 April 1958

1. The purpose of this trip was to make arrangements for closing out the [deletion] project. [deletion] had been given ample previous notice that such was likely to be the intent of the visit, and he prepared himself accordingly.

2. It was explained to [deletion] that it would not be possible to carry over funds beyond the end of the current fiscal year. Therefore all work would have to be completed and all payments made prior to 30 June. This deadline approved acceptable to him, and it was agreed that I would make my final visit there to receive reports and attend to final details on 16 June. [deletion] did not have a current financial report, but he estimated that funds currently on hand would be about sufficient for remaining expenditures. He agreed to send the Society within the next 10 days a more exact statement of current balance and estimated remaining expenditures. I tried to impress on him strongly that transfer of additional funds and/or return of unexpended funds must be completed well before the end of the fiscal year.

3. Of the 30 cases called for in the original design 18 have been completed (but only 4 have been transcribed from the tapes). In addition there are 8 cases in progress (of which two are already in interview and 6 are worked up to the point of having the lists of questions prepared). It was agreed that to meet the deadline we would have to limit the design to these 26 cases.

4. It is apparent that [deletion] is so involved in the administrative problems of the project that he is not paying any attention to the results. Since to date only 4 cases have been transcribed there is no way of telling what is coming out of it. I assume there were no dramatic reactions, because the interviewers would have let him know about them had they emerged. It is possible, however, that our own analysis of the data may dredge up something of value, although I am dubious on this point.

5. [deletion] gave me his usual long involved talk on the difficulties he had encountered which account for the delays. He also talked at some


-143-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

length about his “experiments” with hypnosis, some aspects of which are mildly hair-raising. Finally he made quite a pitch for continuing some such project as this next year, “with realistic, specific deadlines.” I told him we would discuss possibilities after the present project was completed and we had a chance to closely examine the take.

[deletion]

Distribution:
1 [deletion]

[document ends]


-144-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

[deletion]

July 18, 1958

[deletion]

Dear Mr. [deletion]

The experiment designed to test the effectiveness of certain medication in causing individuals to release guarded information has been completed in accordance with the original experimental design, with the exception that 25 instead of 30 cases were used. This matter was discussed in more detail in my letter of July 15. Abstracts on all 25 cases, transcriptions of the interviews, Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Tests given at the hospital and previously given at this clinic, post-experimental rankings and evaluation sheets, and a schedule covering the drug administration have all been submitted to you under separate cover.

Enclosed is a financial statement which represents the final accounting of the funds allocated by you for use in this project. If, for your purpose, you require a more detailed summary of what specific professional services were performed or more detail with reference to travel expenses or any other item, kindly let me know.

You will note, in this connection, that Dr. [deletion] was compensated in an amount exceeding that paid to Dr. [deletion] This was occasioned by the fact that Dr. [deletion] spent much time checking the files and records at the [deletion] and [deletion] Prison selecting cases that might be suitable for our purpose. It was from the cases selected by him that the subjects used in the experiment were finally chosen.

I have been instructed to write a check to the Society for the balance in the account as of today. I would like to

-145-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

Mr. [deletion]                    Page Two                    July 18, 1958

delay this matter for a few days. Several checks have been written during recent days, and I would like to be sure they cleared the bank in [deletion] before closing out the account. You will receive a check in the amount of $1356.26 early next week.

If there is any additional information required, I will be happy to cooperate.

[signature deleted]
Executive Director

[deletion]
Enc.

[document ends]


-146-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

RESEARCH PLAN

LOCATION

The research Project will be carried out at the [deletion] located at [deletion] which is located [deletion]. The hospital has one thousand, one hundred and thirty-five (1,135) beds. At the present time there are one hundred forty-two (142) non-psychotics classified as criminal-sexual psychopaths. There are four full-time psychiatrists and varying numbers of medical interns; two psychologists; four social workers; nurses and attendants. The superintendent of the Hospital is [deletion], a witting member of the research team. The institution comes under the direction of the Executive Secretary of the State Department of Mental Health and any research project is normally approved by the Co-ordinator of Research of the State Department of Mental Health. [deletion] will secure this approval. [deletion] will make space available and it is possible for the research team to sleep at the Hospital while carrying out their investigation.

SUBJECTS

The subjects will be selected from the one hundred and forty-two (142) criminal-sexual psychopaths on whom there is an adequate previous investigation including police reports, physical, psychiatric and psychologic organizations and social histories. The age range of the

-147-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

subjects varies from twenty to seventy years and there is a wide variation of intelligence levels and social backgrounds.

INVESTIGATIONS

The following men are suggested for the research team:

[one line deleted], a psychologist who has had extensive experience in examining criminals; has written extensively on psychopathic sexual deviations; is an authority on polygraph and interrogation methods.

[one line deleted] for some thirty years, a psychiatrist who has spent his life in the treatment of the criminal insane and rethinking the only institution [deletion] for the care and treatment for the criminal-sexual psychopath.

[deletion] a psychiatrist who has a large private practice. At the present time he is exclusively devoting his time to psychoanalysis. He has had extensive experience examining criminals. As a Navy psychiatrist he has had extensive experience in [one line deleted] in the field of eastern cultures, Oriental psychiatry, brainwashing, etc. He has also done drug interrogation with criminals and has engaged in narcoanalysis and hypnoanalysis.

-2-

-148-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[deletion] a psychiatrist who is on the staff of [one line deleted] and maintains a private practice in the field of psychiatry. [deletion] has had wide experience in dealing with criminals going back some twenty-five years, including drug interrogation.

[deletion] a physician for the past twenty-five years, has been [one line deleted] has had extensive experience dealing with all sorts of criminals and has engaged in drug interrogation. Besides his city position, he also maintains a private practice in the field of general medicine.

[deletion] has suggested one of the psychiatrists from his staff who is interested and has used drugs in the treatment of patients and has also used hypnosis with mental patients. The research assistants have not been selected as yet but might well include psychologists or medics now attached to [deletion]. The secretary will be [deletion] present secretary who will do all the necessary stenographic work in addition to her present duties.

EXPERIMENTAL BASICS:

Three teams of two senior professional men each will be selected. One team working with the selected group of patients will use straight interrogation, hypnosis and hypnosis and LSD and hypnosis and a

-3-

-149-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

tetrahydrocannabinol acetate derivative. Another team working on another group of subjects will use straight interrogation, LSD with interrogation and a tetrahydrocannabinol acetate derivative and interrogation. Later the third team with another group of subjects will use straight interrogation and a combination of LSD and a tetrahydrocannabinol acetate derivative.

A meeting of all the members of the research project will be briefed on the drugs to be used and all of the pharmacological and medical knowledge gained so far in the use of these drugs.

In selecting groups of subjects for experimentation, the following objectives will be sought:

1) Subjects will be selected who have denied allegations of various kinds that can be chocked or strongly assumed on the basis of previously established records.

2) As far as possible, the actual research man administering drugs will note aware of the drug he is administering and placebos will be interspersed with drug administration.

3) Precautions will be taken to neutralize age, intelligence, physical condition, social background and any other controllable factor in selecting groups. Administration of drugs will be done both openly and surreptitiously.

4) Sound recordings will be made of the interrogation and written reports will be obtained in other cases.

-4-

-150-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

5) Due care will be exercised in equating methods of interrogation as far as this can be done. The results of interrogation with drugs and other techniques will be checked against existing records and qualitative and quantitative reports will be kept and reports will be submitted on the basis of interim progress and complete projects.

-5-

[document ends]


-151-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

DRAFT/[deletion]

30 January 1961

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Project MKULTRA, Subproject 42

1. Subproject 42 is to be continued for the same purpose as when originally established: to support [deletion] covert and realistic field trials of certain research and development items of interest to TSD, and to maintain the physical facilities required for these trials.

2. In the past year a number of covert and realistic field trials have been successfully carried out. The results of these experiments have provided factual data essential to establishing protocols for a number of contemplated operations. A continuation of covert and realistic field trials are necessitated by the production of new materials in TSD programs, particularly in areas requiring detailed knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of delivery systems. Additional trials are also necessitated by the need for better controlled “field-type” experiments.

3. The estimated cost of the project is $5,000,000 for a period of six months. Charges should be made against Allotment 1125-1390-3902.

4. Accounting for funds and equipment under this subproject has been established on a detailed basis with the auditor and will continue as in the past.

-152-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

5. [deletion] is approved for TOP SECRET by the Agency and operates under cover for purposes of this subproject.

[signature deleted]
TSD/Research Branch

APPROVED FOR OBLIGATION OF FUNDS:
[signature deleted]

Date:

Distribution:
Original only.

[document ends]


-153-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

24 January 1955

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Project MKULTRA, Subproject 42

Subproject 42 is being established to provide for the continued support of the [deletion] facilities, and as such, is a continuation of Subproject 16. Under Subproject 42, it is intended that the [deletion] facilities be moved from [deletion] to [deletion] These facilities, in the new location, will continue to provide a means for the realistic testing of certain R and D items of interest to CD/TSS and APD/TSS.

2. Subproject 42 will be conducted by Mr. [deletion] a seaman. Certain support activation will be provided by CD/TSS and AFD/TSS.

3. The estimated cost for a period of one year is $8,300.00, starting 1 March 1955.

[signature: Robert Lashbrook for]

SIDNEY GOTTLIEB
Chief
TSS/Chemical Division

APPROVED FOR OBLIGATION OF FUNDS:

[signature deleted]
Research Director
Date: 27 Jan 1955

APPROVED FOR ADDITIONAL OBLIGATION OF FUNDS: ($2,089.34)

[signature deleted]
[deletion] Research Director
Date: June 27 1956

Original Only.

[document ends]

-154-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

21 March 1955

[deletion]

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Project MKULTRA, Subproject 45

1. The scope of this project is intended to encompass all those activities now engaged in by the [deletion], in its own facilities under the direction of TSS, Chemical Division. These activities will take the form of three lines of biochemical investigation; namely, the curare-like effect of certain thiols, the preparation of hydrogenated quinolines and indole alkaloids, and the continued study of diphenolic compounds. In addition to the above investigations, the present biological testing and assaying techniques will be elaborated and broadened to include cardiovascular and anticarcinogenic effects of compounds resulting from the above programs.

2. The attached proposal from [deletion] indicates the extent of the investigations that his facilities will allow him to carry out on the materials developed in the three lines of research referred to in paragraph 1, as well as certain other materials of interest to TSS/CD. [deletion] also serves as a general consultant to this Division and provides cover and cut-out facilities to the Agency.

3. The total cost of this project for a period of one year will not exceed $100,000.00 At the present time, the sum of $40,000.00 is being committed, the balance of the total to be committed at a later date.

4. [deletion] has been granted a TOP SECRET clearance by the Agency, and is fully capable of protecting the security of the Government’s interest in this matter.

[signature deleted]
TSS, Chemical Division

APPROVED FOR OBLIGATION OF FUNDS:

[signature deleted]
Research Director
Date: 24 Mar 55

APPROVED:

[signature deleted]
Chief TSS/Chemical Division

APPROVED FOR ADDITIONAL APPROPRIATION OF $27,000:

[signature deleted]
Research Director
Date: Jun 2 1955

Attachments:
Proposal

Original Only.

[document ends]

-155-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

30 January 1956

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORDS

SUBJECT: Project MKULTRA, Subproject 43

1. The scope of this project is intended to encompass all those activities now engaged in by the [deletion] under the direction of TSS/CD. These activities take the form of three lines of biochemical investigation, namely, the Curare-like effect of certain this, the preparation of hydrogenated quinolines and indole alkaloids and a program of investigation of toxic cerebral states. This last investigation will include bio-assay and chemical analysis of various body fluids of animals in which cerebral toxemias have been produced. It is the aim of this program to endeavor to understand the mechanism of such states as toxic delirium, uremic coma, and cerebral toxicity from poisoning. In order to continue the established “cover” activities of the [deletion] and to make available a pool of subjects for testing purposes, the [deletion] and [deletion] effects of compounds resulting from the above program will be evaluated.

2. The attached proposal from [deletion] indicates the extent of the investigations that his facilities will allow him to carry out on the materials developed in the three lines of research referred to in paragraph one, as well as certain other materials of interest to TSS/CD. [deletion] also serves as a general consultant to this Division and provides cover and cut-out facilities to the Agency.

3. The total cost of this project for a period of one year will not exceed $100,000. Charges should be made against Allotment 6-2502-10-001.

4. [deletion] has been requested to submit a summary accounting or a copy of the [deletion] annual audit report be made available for the sponsor’s inspection. Also, it has been requested that any unexpended funds shall be returned to the Agency.

5. Title to any permanent equipment purchased by funds granted [deletion] shall be retained by the [deletion] in lieu of higher overhead rates.

* other than its activities as a cut-out

-156-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

6. It was mutually agreed that documentation and accounting for travel expenses which are normally reimbursable by the [deletion] shall conform with the accepted practices of the [deletion]

7. [deletion] agreed to comply with the requirements of the Memorandum of Agreement.

[signature deleted]
TSS/Chemical Division

APPROVED:

[Sidney Gottlieb signature]
Chief, TSS Chemical Division

APPROVED FOR OBLIGATION OF FUNDS:

[signature deleted]
Research Director
Date: 2 Feb 1956

Attachment:
Proposal

Distribution:
Original Only

[document ends]

-157-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

1960

The research to be undertaken during the twelve month period for which financial support is requested will be devoted to the continued analysis of the neural and endocrine mechanism of stress and the chemical agents that influence it. The screening procedures are based largely upon a further analysis of phases of stress and the influences of this physiologic behavior complex upon both body and skin temperatures as detailed in the accompanying report.

The chemical synthesis of new compounds will be continued at the [deletion] under the supervision of [deletion] and at the [deletion] under the supervision of [deletion] These chemical agents will be screened for their capacity to provoke stress or to suppress the stress reaction in its acute or chronic phases. Animal testing will include pharmacologic screening and proper toxicity studies of these compounds as heretofore.

Chemical agents that have been found active and within a suitable toxicity range will be subjected to clinical screening on appropriate patients, the initial screening being carried out on advanced cancer patients. The amount of money devoted to chemical synthesis, however, has been further reduced. Chemical compounds available from biologic sources as well as those synthesized in the project will be screened, particularly those that are active in either raising or lowering body temperature.

As heretofore any agents which prove to be of interest [deletion] both on transplant

-158-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

Page 2

animal tumors and on cancer patients. This cancer phase of the project will be considered a by-product of the major objective, which will be directed to the problem of stress.

[document ends]


-159-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45

1. The scope of this subproject includes all those activities now engaged in by [deletion], under the direction of TSD/RB with the exception of those cutout functions specifically mentioned in connection with other MKULTRA subprojects. In general, the research effort under this subproject will continue along the lines laid down in previous years. These involve the synthesis and pharmacological and clinical evaluation of compounds of those chemical families known to have application in the psychochemical and “K” fields. During the past year important progress has been made in the area related to stressor compounds and the relationship of these materials to the physiological pathways through which both stress and the reaction to it are mediated in human beings. As indicated in the attached proposal, the work of the past year has progressed to the point where more definitive experiments on the stress reaction can be carried out. Primarily this was brought about by the characterization of several new materials which produce stress reaction in humans and the application of some new clinical methods of measuring the extent of the disturbance produced. During the next year proportionally more effort will be expended on the problem of the development of new


-160-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

“knock-out” types of agents since progress has been slower than is desirable in this direction and because a new approach to the problem has been worked out.

2. [deletion] also serves as a general consultant to the Agency, provides services of a sensitive nature on an ad hoc basis, and serves as a cut-out in procurement problems.

3. The total cost of this project for a period of one year will not exceed $71,500.00 [handwritten note above: 40,000.00]. Charges should be made against Allotment 0525-1009-4902.

4 [deletion] has been requested to submit a summary accounting or a copy of the Fund’s annual audit report for the sponsor’s inspection. Also, it has been requested that any unexpended funds shall be returned to the Agency.

5. Title to any permanent equipment purchased by funds granted [deletion] shall be retained by [deletion], in lieu of higher overhead rates.

6. It was mutually agreed that documentation and accounting for travel expenses which are normally reimbursable by [deletion] shall conform with the accepted practices of the Fund.

[document ends]


-161-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD

SUBJECT: Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45

1. The scope of this subproject includes all those activities now engaged in by [deletion] under the direction of TSD/RB with the exception of those cutout functions specifically mentioned in connection with other MKULTRA subprojects. In general, the research effort under this subproject will continue along the lines laid down in previous years. These involve the synthesis and pharmacological and clinical evaluation of compounds of those chemical families known to have application in the psychochemical and “K” fields. During the coming year it is planned to concentrate more directly on the more practical aspects of the “knockout” problem. Enough new potent substances have become available lately to make such a change in emphasis worthwhile. In connection with this change it should be noted that certain findings made in [deletion] project at [deletion] which cannot be further exploited at that facility will be pursued at [deletion] in the future. For this reason it may be necessary to supplement the findings of this subproject from time to time during the year due to increases of scope.

2. [deletion] also serves as a general consultant to the Agency, provides services of a sensitive nature on an ad hoc basis, and serves as a cutout in procurement problems.


-162-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

3. The total cost of this project for a period of one year will not exceed $40,000. Charges should be made against Allotment 2125-1390-3902.

4. [deletion] has been requested to submit a summary accounting or a copy of the Fund’s annual audit report for the sponsor’s inspection. Also, it has been requested that any unexpended funds shall be returned to the Agency.

5. Title to any permanent equipment purchased by funds granted [deletion] shall be retained by [deletion] in lieu of higher overhead rates.

6. It was mutually agreed that documentation and accounting for travel expenses which are normally reimbursable by [deletion] shall conform with the accepted practices of the Fund.

[signature deleted]
Chief
TSD/Research Branch

APPROVED FOR OBLIGATION OF FUNDS:

[signature deleted]
Research Director

Date [illegible]

Attachment: Proposal and Budget

Distribution: Original only

[document ends]


-163-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

DRAFT

24 January 1964

MEMORANDUM FOR: THE RECORD

SUBJECT: MKULTRA, Subproject 149

1. This subproject is being established for the purpose of supporting realistic tests of certain development items and delivery systems of interest to TSD/BB.

[handwritten note: 31 Jan ’64 Testing in stand-down until policy issues (illegible) at DCI level. OK to (illegible)]

2. During the course of development it is sometimes found that certain very necessary experiments or tests are not suited to ordinary laboratory facilities. At the same time, it would be difficult if not impossible to conduct such tests as operational field tests. This project is designed to provide a capability and facilities to fill this intermediate requirement.

3. The activities under this subproject will be conducted by Mr. [deletion], an individual in the import and export business, in [deletion] Mr. [deletion] holds a TOP SECRET Treasury Department clearance and a SECRET Agency approval. He is completely witting of the aims and goals of his activities.

4. Mr. [deletion] possesses unique facilities and personal abilities which makes him invaluable in this kind of testing operation. Mr. [deletion] because of his peculiar talents and

-164-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

-2-

capabilities as well as his excellent connections with all of the local law enforcement agencies, will provide a unique and essential capability. Because Mr. [deletion] is no longer resident of the [deletion] area, it is necessary that a suitable replacement be provided in order that a capability for continuance of our activities be maintained.

5. The estimated cost of the project is $10,000.00 for a period of one year. Charges should be made against Allotment Number 4125-1390-3902. Reimbursement will be made for services rendered.

6. Accounting for funds advanced and any equipment under this subproject will be in accordance with accounting procedures established by the [deletion] [handwritten note: Administration Staff/TSD] [deletion]

7. A memorandum of agreement along lines established by previous audit recommendations in like situations will be executed.

[signature deleted]
Chief
TSD/Biological Branch

Distribution:
Original only

[document ends]


-165-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

SUBJECT: Request for Support of Research on the Mechanism of Brain Concussion

1. This is a request for financial support for research on the mechanism of brain concussion for the period 1 Feb 1956 to 1 Feb 1957.

2. The resonance-cavitation theory upon which this research is to be based has been presented in the proposal submitted to the [deletion] dated 27 March 1954.

3. The program as originally submitted estimated the duration of the program to be from three to five years requesting a total of $72,109 for the initial year.

4. At the request of the [deletion] a reduced budget was submitted.

5. [deletion], amounting to $24,925, was then awarded to the [deletion] to support this program from 1 Feb 1955 to 1 Feb 1956.

6. The progress made to date under the above contract can be summarized as follows:

A. RESEARCH FACILITIES

The following research facilities have been established for the investigation of the very diverse aspects of the problems being studied:
a. [deletion]
A total of 2500 square feet of laboratory and office space equipped with much of the diversified machinery and apparatus necessary for research in this field.

b. Blast Range
A blast range has been established at [deletion] located approximately [deletion] of the main laboratory. This area is owned by the [deletion] and is closed to the public. Three blast test series have been run to date.

c. [deletion]
Arrangements have been made with the [one line deleted] for use of their human cadavers. A test area has been assigned for this


-166-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

B. PERSONNEL

Both full-time technical personnel and part-time professional research personnel have been acquired and indoctrinated relative to their specific function.

C. TECHNICAL PROGRAMS

Following is the technical progress made under the current [deletion] contract:

a. Specialized instrumentation and numerous testing techniques have been developed to obtain the desired dynamic data.

b. Considerable data has now been obtained supporting the resonance-cavitation theory of brain concussion.

c. Preliminary acceleration threshold data has been obtained for a fluid-filled glass simulated skull.

d. Data has been obtained on the nature and the magnitude of pressure fluctuations within a glass simulated skull subject to either impact or sound waves propagated in air.

e. Initial studies have been made on the simulated glass skull attempting to establish the cavitation patterns for various types of impact.

7. The proposed method and program plan remain the same as stated in the original proposal, except for the temporary deletion of the immersion blast study.

8. The current level of activity on this project can be indicated by the most recent billing to the [deletion] for the month of November, which amounted to $4,034.61.

9. In the interest of efficiency and economy it is requested that at least this level of activity be maintained for the coming year.


-167-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

10.0 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH FUNDING

10.1 Trotter, W. defines brain concussion as: “an essentially transient state due to head injury which is of instantaneous onset, manifests widespread symptoms of purely paralytic kind, does not as such comprise any evidence of structural cerebral injury,and is always followed by amnesia for the actual moment of the accident.”

10.2 The implication of the underlined portion of the above statement is that if a technique were devised to induce brain concussion without giving either advance warning or causing external physical trauma, the person upon recovery would be unable to recall what had happened to him. Under these conditions the same technique of producing the concussion could be re-used many times without disclosure of its nature.

10.3 First, considering the possibilities of direct impact to the head or body, it should be possible from the findings of this research program to determine the following:
a. Optimum design of impacting devices.
b. Optimum points of impact on skull or body.
c. Intensity of the blow for the effect desired.

10.4 In regard to the potential impacting devices, there are certain design requisites that are apparent at this time:
a. The impact should be delivered without advance warning.
b. The area of impact and force distribution should be such that surface trauma does not occur.
c. The intensity of the impacting force and its duration should be such as to obtain the desired effect.
d. The device should be as small and as silent as possible.

10.5 The specific impacting devices might take the form of any of the following:

a. A pancake type black-jack giving a high peak impact force with a low unit surface pressure.
b. Concealed or camouflaged spring-loaded impacting devices that trigger upon contact with the head.

(Original and sole copy :agg)


-168-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

c. A projectile type impactor such as an air gun using a small shot filled sack for a projectile.

d. An explosive pad detonated in contact with the head or the body.

10.6 Let us now consider the possibilities of exciting the resonance cavitation directly without impact. There is considerable evidence that resonance cavitation can be induced directly in the following ways:

a. A blast wave propogated in air. (Blast Concussion)

b. Physical excitation with a mechanical driver or horn, turned to the resonant frequency of the head.

10.7 A single blast pressure wave propogated in air must have considerable intensity in order to produce brain concussion. However, there is considerable evidence (Carver & Dinsley) that modification of the pressure wave can produce profound effects.

10.8 Excitation of the resonance cavitation by using a tuned driver at this time appears to be well within the realm of possibility. The neurotic-like manifestations normally associated with blast concussion could possibly be induced by this method. Use of this method, however, would require actual physical contact with the drivers.

10.9 Excitation of the resonance cavitation by tuned sound waves also appears to be a reasonable possibility. Concentration of the sound-field at some remote point could be effected with acoustical lenses and reflectors. The blast duration would be in the order of a tenth of a second. Masking of a noise of this duration should not be too difficult.

11.0 It would possibly be advantageous to establish the effectiveness of both of the above methods as a tool in brain-wash therapy. A full knowledge of the method and the resulting sequela should be of aid to any person forced to submit to such treatment.

12.0 Possibly the most significant potential aspect of this study would be in the development of practical means of giving a person immunity, even though temporary, to brain concussion. One technique that appears to have potentialities involves the introduction of a small quantity of gas, approximately 1 cc, into the spinal cord. This gas bubble would then normally migrate to the ventricles located at the centrum of the brain. The ability of this bubble to expand under dynamic loading would be most effective in preventing resonance cavitation from occurring.

(Original and sole copy :agg)

[document ends]


-169-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

MATERIAL FOR THE RECORD

MKSEARCH, OFTEN/CHICKWIT

MKSEARCH was the name given to the continuation of the MKULTRA program. Funding commenced in FY 1966, and ended in FY 1972. Its purpose was to develop, test, and evaluate capabilities in the covert use of biological, chemical, and radioactive material systems and techniques for producing predictable human behavioral and/or physiological changes in support of highly sensitive operational requirements.

OFTEN/CHICKWIT

In 1967 the Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories undertook a program for doing research on the identification and characterization of drugs that could influence human behavior. Edgewood had the facilities for the full range of laboratory and clinical testing. A phased program was envisioned that would consist of acquisition of drugs and chemical compounds believed to have effects on the behavior of humans, and testing and evaluation these materials through laboratory procedures and toxicological studies. Compounds believed promising as a result of tests on animals were then to be evaluated clinically with human subjects at Edgewood. Substances of potential use would then be analyzed structurally as a basis for identifying and synthesizing possible new derivatives of greater utility.

The program was divided into two projects. Project OFTEN was to deal with testing and toxicological, transmissivity and behavioral effects of drugs in animals and, ultimately, humans. Project CHICKWIT was concerned with acquiring information on new drug developments in Europe and the Orient, and with acquiring samples.

There is a discrepancy between the testimony of DOD and CIA regarding the testing at Edgewood Arsenal in June 1973. While there is agreement that human testing occurred at that place and time, there is disagreement as to who was responsible for financing and sponsorship. (See hearings before the Subcommittee, September 21, 1977.)

[document ends]


-170-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20505

Office of Legislative
Counsel                    23 December 1977

Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, Chairman
Select Committee on Intelligence
United States Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510

Dear Mr. Chairman:

During Admiral Turner’s 3 August 1977 testimony before your Committee and the Senate Human Resources Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research, you asked whether any Agency employees had been terminated because of their participation in MKULTRA Subproject 3. Admiral Turner indicated he did not believe any employee had been terminated, but would have Agency records searched on this question. Our records have been searched and the results confirm the Director’s testimony that no such actions were taken.

Sincerely,

[George L. Cary signature]
George L. Cary
Legislative Counsel

[document ends]

-167-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

10.0 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH FUNDING

10.1 Trotter, W. defines brain concussion as: “an essentially transient state due to head injury which is of instantaneous onset, manifests widespread symptoms of purely paralytic kind, does not as such comprise any evidence of structural cerebral injury, and is always followed by amnesia for the actual moment of the accident.”

10.2 The implication of the underlined portion of the above statement is that if a technique were devised to induce brain concussion without giving either advance warning or causing external physical trauma, the person upon recovery would be unable to recall what had happened to him. Under these conditions the same technique of producing the concussion could be re-used many times without disclosure of its nature.

10.3 First, considering the possibilities of direct impact to the head or body, it should be possible from the findings of this research program to determine the following:
a. Optimum design of impacting devices.
b. Optimum points of impact on skull or body.
c. Intensity of the blow for the effect desired.

10.4 In regard to the potential impacting devices, there are certain design requisites that are apparent at this time:
a. The impact should be delivered without advance warning.
b. The area of impact and force distribution should be such that surface trauma does not occur.
c. The intensity of the impacting force and its duration should be such as to obtain the desired effect.
d. The device should be as small and as silent as possible.

10.5 The specific impacting devices might take the form of any of the following:

a. A pancake type black-jack giving a high peak impact force with a low unit surface pressure.
b. Concealed or camouflaged spring-loaded impacting devices that trigger upon contact with the head.

(Original and sole copy :agg)


-168-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

c. A projectile type impactor such as an air gun using a small shot filled sack for a projectile.

d. An explosive pad detonated in contact with the head or the body.

10.6 Let us now consider the possibilities of exciting the resonance cavitation directly without impact. There is considerable evidence that resonance cavitation can be induced directly in the following ways:

a. A blast wave propogated in air. (Blast Concussion)

b. Physical excitation with a mechanical driver or horn, turned to the resonant frequency of the head.

10.7 A single blast pressure wave propogated in air must have considerable intensity in order to produce brain concussion. However, there is considerable evidence (Carver & Dinsley) that modification of the pressure wave can produce profound effects.

10.8 Excitation of the resonance cavitation by using a tuned driver at this time appears to be well within the realm of possibility. The neurotic-like manifestations normally associated with blast concussion could possibly be induced by this method. Use of this method, however, would require actual physical contact with the drivers.

10.9 Excitation of the resonance cavitation by tuned sound waves also appears to be a reasonable possibility. Concentration of the sound-field at some remote point could be effected with acoustical lenses and reflectors. The blast duration would be in the order of a tenth of a second. Masking of a noise of this duration should not be too difficult.

11.0 It would possibly be advantageous to establish the effectiveness of both of the above methods as a tool in brain-wash therapy. A full knowledge of the method and the resulting sequela should be of aid to any person forced to submit to such treatment.

12.0 Possibly the most significant potential aspect of this study would be in the development of practical means of giving a person immunity, even though temporary, to brain concussion. One technique that appears to have potentialities involves the introduction of a small quantity of gas, approximately 1 cc, into the spinal cord. This gas bubble would then normally migrate to the ventricles located at the centrum of the brain. The ability of this bubble to expand under dynamic loading would be most effective in preventing resonance cavitation from occurring.

(Original and sole copy :agg)

[document ends]


-169-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

MATERIAL FOR THE RECORD

MKSEARCH, OFTEN/CHICKWIT

MKSEARCH was the name given to the continuation of the MKULTRA program. Funding commenced in FY 1966, and ended in FY 1972. Its purpose was to develop, test, and evaluate capabilities in the covert use of biological, chemical, and radioactive material systems and techniques for producing predictable human behavioral and/or physiological changes in support of highly sensitive operational requirements.

OFTEN/CHICKWIT

In 1967 the Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories undertook a program for doing research on the identification and characterization of drugs that could influence human behavior. Edgewood had the facilities for the full range of laboratory and clinical testing. A phased program was envisioned that would consist of acquisition of drugs and chemical compounds believed to have effects on the behavior of humans, and testing and evaluation these materials through laboratory procedures and toxicological studies. Compounds believed promising as a result of tests on animals were then to be evaluated clinically with human subjects at Edgewood. Substances of potential use would then be analyzed structurally as a basis for identifying and synthesizing possible new derivatives of greater utility.

The program was divided into two projects. Project OFTEN was to deal with testing and toxicological, transmissivity and behavioral effects of drugs in animals and, ultimately, humans. Project CHICKWIT was concerned with acquiring information on new drug developments in Europe and the Orient, and with acquiring samples.

There is a discrepancy between the testimony of DOD and CIA regarding the testing at Edgewood Arsenal in June 1973. While there is agreement that human testing occurred at that place and time, there is disagreement as to who was responsible for financing and sponsorship. (See hearings before the Subcommittee, September 21, 1977.)

[document ends]


-170-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20505

Office of Legislative
Counsel                    23 December 1977

Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, Chairman
Select Committee on Intelligence
United States Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510

Dear Mr. Chairman:

During Admiral Turner’s 3 August 1977 testimony before your Committee and the Senate Human Resources Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research, you asked whether any Agency employees had been terminated because of their participation in MKULTRA Subproject 3. Admiral Turner indicated he did not believe any employee had been terminated, but would have Agency records searched on this question. Our records have been searched and the results confirm the Director’s testimony that no such actions were taken.

Sincerely,

[George L. Cary signature]
George L. Cary
Legislative Counsel

[document ends]


-171-    [View JPEG Document Scan of This Page]

[document begins]

QKHILLTOP DEFINITION

QKHILLTOP was a cryptonym assigned in 1954 to a project to study Chines Communist brainwashing techniques and to develop interrogation techniques. Most of the early studies are believed to have been conducted by the Cornell University Medical School Human Ecology Study Programs. The effort was absorbed into the MKULTRA program and the QKHILLTOP cryptonym became obsolete. The Society for the investigation of Human Ecology, later the Human Ecology Fund, was an outgrowth of the QKHILLTOP.

[document ends]

Read Appendix C, Part 1

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s